Astro-images by RASC Member, Erwin Diener

Equipment: Telescope: 16“ f/8.4 - Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain (Optical Systems);

Mount: Paramount ME; Cameras: ST-10XME; STL-11000M (SBIG); Filters: Astrodon


Software: CcdSoft; Maxim-DL; RCOS-TCC; FocusMax; TheSky6; CCDStack; CCDInspector to monitor FWHM, polar alignment and collimation; Photoshop CS5

M27 Planetary Nebula

1200 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl. R. G. B., 1hr each

Camera: STL-11000M 

M42 (Trapezium)

1300 L. Y. distant

Exposure: Ha 5nm.R.G.B (sub exposures for 5 seconds); 30, 5, 5, 5 min.  

Camera: ST-10XME


1200 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Ha 3nm, OIII 3nm, 1, 1.5hrs, Ha mapped to red, OIII to blue; R. G. B. 1hr each

Camera: STL-11000M


12 million L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl, (R/Ha 3nm),G, B; 2, (2/6), 2, 2 hrs

Camera: STL-11000M


55 Million L.Y. distant
Barred spiral galaxy
Exposure: Cl. R. G. B.; 160, 40, 90, 50 Min.

       This reversed image of M1 indicates the region where the pulsar NPO532 is located as shown by radio telescopes.  Use the zoom to  locate the circular mark in the center of the nebula


                              Galactic cluster in Perseus
                                    Distance: unknown
                     Exposure: Cl; 2hrs, R.G.B.; 40 min. each
                               Camera: STL 11000M
             By zooming in on the image, you can count more
                                     than 100 galaxies


                                  6500 L.Y. distant
          This image shows part of a large emission nebula
containing highly active star nurseries. Exposure: Ha 3nm,
  OIII 3nm; 4, 4.5 hrs; Ha mapped to red, OIII to blue. 
                            Camera: STL-11000M



                                       6300 L.Y. distant
                       Exposure: Ha 3nm, OIII 3nm; 3, 5 hrs;
                                      Ha mapped to red,
                       OIII to blue; R.G.B., 30 min. each
                                  Camera: STL-11000M
This nebula, measuring 10 light-years across, represents the remnants of a supernova explosion that was recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054 AD. The center of the nebula holds the collapsed core of the exploded star, which has become a neutron star cataloged as NPO532. With a diameter of only 45 km, it rotates 30 times per second. Due to the star’s magnetic field, subatomic particles are accelerated towards the magnetic poles from where they emit radio waves. The two radio emission beams sweep across space as the star rotates. Because the star’s rotational axis does not coincide with that of the magnetic field, earth happens to be located in the path of only one of those beams. Radio telescopes detect one pulse of radiation with each rotation of NPO532. For this reason, the neutron star of M1 has been classified as a pulsar. The luminosity of M1, which is 75’000 times greater than that of the sun, is due to the energy released by NPO532. The nebula keeps expanding at 1’800 km/s. Note the blue-colored projections corresponding to the OIII- spectral region.


37 Million L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl. R. G. B.; 120, 45, 45, 45 Min. at binning 2x2

                                Camera: STL-11000M

NGC7635 (S162)

7800 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl. R. G. B.; 2, 1, 1, 1 hrs

Camera: ST-10XME


35 Million L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl. R. G. B.; 2, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 hrs

                                    Camera: ST-10XME



35000 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl. R. G. B.; 30, 20, 20, 20 Min. 

Camera: STL-11000M


5000 L. Y. distant

Exposure: Ha mapped to red; 3 hrs

Camera: STL-11000M


7000 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Ha 3nm, OIII 3nm; 3, 1.5 hrs; Ha mapped to red, OIII to blue.

This nebula spans about 110 L.Y. and contains an open cluster of relatively young stars (~5 Mill. years). What appears to be a gas-bubble caused by a Wolf-Rayet -type star can be seen in the image’s upper hal

NGC7635 (S162)

7800 L.Y distant

Exposure: Ha, OIII; 6, 1 hrs; Ha mapped to red, OIII to blue.

Camera: STL-11000M

This bubble of gas, 6 L.Y. in diameter, stems from the outer layers of gas from a Wolf-Rayet star which is 40 times as massive and many hundred thousand times more luminous than our sun  (visible off-center inside the bubble). Unlike the Crescent Nebula’s dynamic environment, stationary interstellar gas at high density surrounds the Bubble Nebula. Thus, the bubble’s sharply defined shape represents the leading edge of the Wolf-Rayet stellar wind hitting the dense surrounding medium at a speed of 9 million km/h. It is likely, that the off-center location of the Wolf-Rayet star inside the bubble is due to density gradients in the stationary medium exposed to the stars radiation pressure. 

IC1396A (VDB 142) mosaic from two images

2400 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Ha 3nm; 2.5hrs for each

of the two images. Ha mapped to red

Camera: STL-11000M

The bright rim of the molecular/dust/gas cloud (globule) is due to the ionizing effect of radiation from stars, in particular from a nearby hot O-type star. The globule has been found to contain several young stars, which are still hidden from view. The two stars inside the opening in the top section of the globule are presumed to have freed themselves from dust by way of radiation pressure (stellar wind).

Caldwell_C27 (NGC6888)

4700 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl, R, Ha 3nm, OIII 3nm; 1.5,1.25,3.5,2.5 hrs; Ha mapped to red, OIII to blue.

Camera: STL-11000M

This nebula (Crescent Nebula) represents the outer layers of gas stripped from the massive Wolf-Rayet -type star HD 192163, as it departed from the main sequence, turning into a red giant. This phase of the stars life lasted a few hundred thousand years. The gaseous envelope of 25x16 L.Y. dimension keeps expanding at a speed of up to 30,000 km/h. Due to its instability, the star has entered a phase characterized by massive mass loss in the form of stellar wind which hits the slower expanding envelope at a speed of up to 4.5 million km/h. The force of the solar wind’s shock front induces the gaseous envelope to radiate at different wavelengths, including the spectrum of visible light.

Camera: STL-11000M   


56 Million L.Y. distant

Exposure: L, R, G, B; 4.25, 1, 1, 1 hrs

Camera: STL-11000M

This large galaxy with a diameter of 160,000 L.Y. is the brightest within the Virgo cluster.

On Feb.4th, 2006, a type 1a supernova was discovered in this galaxy, the fifth supernova since 1901. The galaxy displays very active star formation near its center within a narrow band known as the Inner Linblad Resonance Ring (ILR) that surrounds the central nucleus of 3000 L.Y in diameter. The ILR results from the influx of galactic matter. The causative force of this influx relates to gravitational torque exerted by the galaxy’s nuclear bar (note the galaxy’s oval shaped nucleus).   



7500 L.Y. distant

Exposure: Ha 3nm; OIII 3nm; 2.5, 0.5 hrs.

Ha mapped to red, OIII to blue.

Camera: STL-11000M

This section of the Heart Nebula shows the

emission nebula and clouds of cosmic dust.


12 million L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl, (R/Ha), G, B; 6, (2/6), 2, 2 hrs

Total exposure time 18 hours!

Camera: STL-11000M

This irregular-type galaxy owes its starburst activity to a presumed encounter 300 to 600 million years ago with neighbor galaxy M81. The very high rate of star formation and a corresponding supernova activity have generated a shock front causing the ejection of an ultra-hot gas plasma that extends tens of thousands L.Y. into space. The rate of star formation in this galaxy exceeds that of normal galaxies by hundreds of times. On the enlarged image, many additional, remote galaxies can be seen. 

NGC 2683

16 Mill. L.Y. distant.

Exposure: Cl,R,G,B; 3, 1, 1, 1 h. Camera, ST-10XME


12 million L.Y. distant

Exposure: Cl, R, G, B; 3, 1, 1, 1 hrs

Camera: STL-11000M

Image of IC 5067

Exposure times: Cl, R, G, B, Ha: 2, 1, 1, 1, 2 h.  

STL- 11000M camera.

IC 5067

Taken with the ST-10XME camera.

The jets of gas coming from the top of the tendril

originate from the magnetic poles of an embedded protostar deep inside the cloud of cosmic dust. 

The object is about 1900 L.Y. distant (Erwin).

Images Copyright © Erwin Diener